Guide for Authors

 The aim of the journal “Biosphere” is to publish basic and applied science papers that clearly give insight into biospheric processes. Their significance in this regard should be clearly stated. Highly speculative papers not based on current knowledge will not be acceptable. It is essential that papers be accessible to as wide a readership as possible. Every effort should be made to make the main points of the paper intelligible to other specialists. Mathematical technicalities and experimental procedures may usually be best presented by references so as not to impede the exposition of the central ideas.

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Copyright Agreement' (ссылка). As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights as stipulated by the Copyright Agreement.

Please write your text in English or Russian. In the former case, both, the original and Russian versions will be published, however, you will be charged for translation into Russian.

Submission to this journal proceeds by e-mail.

The text of your submission should be presented as a MS Word document (*. doc *.docx, or *.rtf) in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. Do not embed "graphically designed" equations but prepare these using MS Equation plugin to MS Word. Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. You are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your word processor.

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to "the text". Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Double-space the entire manuscript, and ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated. Present tables and figure legends on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. If possible, consult a recent issue of the journal to become familiar with layout and conventions. Number all pages consecutively.

The first page of a submission must include the following

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the city (town) name and country name of each affiliation and the e-mail address of each author.

Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address of the corresponding author.

Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Abstract A concise and factual abstract of about 250 words is required. The abstract should state briefly the objective of the paper, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Please note that Keywords should NOT include words that already appear in the title of the manuscript. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Acknowledgements
 Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Math formulae
 Present simple formulae in the line of normal text using bold italic for symbols and the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes
 Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. 

Table footnotes. Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
• Submit each figure as a separate file.
Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply embedded graphics in your word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
• Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then the publisher will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from the publisher after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only. Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to "gray scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Tables
 Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication" Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference style
Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: "..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ...."
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the alphabetical order, Cyrillic fist, Latin next. Russian standard for references is quite peculiar as the following examples show:
Reference to a journal publication:
1. van der Geer J., Hanraads J.A.J., Lupton R.A. The art of writing a scientific article // J. Sci. Commun. – 2000 – Vol. 163. – P. 51–59.
Reference to a book:
2. Strunk W. Jr., White E.B. The Elements of Style, third ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
3. Mettam G.R., Adams L.B. How to prepare an electronic version of your article // Introduction to the Electronic Age / B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.). – New York: E-Publishing Inc.,  1999. – P. 281–304.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to
Index Medicus journal abbreviations: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html;
List of serial title word abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php;
CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service): http://www.cas.org/sent.html.

Reviewing process.A submission satisfying the above requirements will be sent to one or two reviewers. Although every effort is made to accelerate the reviewing process, the time of the reviewers is largely beyond the control of the editors; therefore the process may take up to two months. The corresponding author will receive reviewers’s opinions by e-mail. It is virtually impossible that the reviewers do not demand modifications to the articles. The authors shall reply to the reviews with a letter sent to the publisher as a separate file, which must clearly indicate all changes made to their manuscript and explicitly provide reasons to refute reviewer’s demands where this occurs. Where major changes are required, the amended manuscript is sent to the same reviewers another time.    

Proofs
 One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author, or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. PDF proofs can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections and return them in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints
 The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail.